The Farewell Hajj

After Makkah had been conquered, Prophet Muhamad and many of his companions returned to Medina. It was the 9th year of the Hijrah— known as the ‘Year of the Delegations’ since each tribe from all over the Arabian Peninsula sent a group of representatives to greet Prophet Muhammad to declare their allegiance and pledge their commitment to him. Prophet Muhammad and his companions, peace be upon them, hosted the groups of representatives in the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina. The representatives of each tribe heard the Holy Quran being recited, watched the companions pray, and learned about Islam from Prophet Muhamad, peace be upon him.

Many of the representatives believed in the Message immediately and were satisfied, and some did not accept as smoothly as the others. The representatives of the tribes returned to their people, calling them to accept Islam, teaching them what they’d learned and telling them they needed to get rid of all their idols. Eventually, the whole Arabian Peninsula had accepted Islam.

In the 10th year of the Hijrah, Allah, the Glorious, revealed a command to perform Hajj for those capable of doing so. Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, announced that he was going to perform Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca. Flocks of people—tens of thousands of people from all over joined him—it was the largest gathering in the Arabian Peninsula at the time.

Throughout the Hajj pilgrimage, Prophet Muhammad gave several sermons, including the famous primary sermon– on the day of Arafat from the plain of Arafat (Mount of Mercy). There, he declared equality and solidarity between all the Muslims and reminded them of all the duties Islam had enjoined them upon. He forbade stealing, killing people, involvement in interest, and more. He commanded everyone to be good and just to their wives and women. He relayed the famous words to them of ‘There is no superiority of an Arab over a non-Arab nor of a non-Arab over an Arab, nor a white over a black, nor a black over a white, except by taqwa (piety, fear of God, & God conciseness).’

He told them there are two things if they hold on to, they will not go astray– and that is the Book of Allah; The Holy Quran and the Sunnah; the teachings of the last and final Prophet, Muhammad peace be upon him. He reminded them that they would return to their Lord one day who will judge them based on their deeds. In the end, he asked them, ‘Have I not conveyed the Message?’ The companions replied ‘Yes!’ Then Prophet Muhammad raised his hands in the air and looked up into the sky and said three times, ‘O Allah you bear witness!’